當代中文語法點全集
當代中文語法點全集
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  • 全書共 345 條現代漢語實用語法點
    適合不同階段的中文學習者
    華語教學界泰斗──鄧守信教授畢生之研究精華與實踐
    華語教學權威──國立臺灣師範大學國語教學中心策劃
    從功能語法詮釋,幫助學習者了解何時使用與使用的情境,
    並介紹這些結構,包含肯定、否定、疑問等形式
    提醒學習者各語法點使用時應注意的地方
    有效整理、比較所有重要語法點,釐清語法觀念

    本書特色:
    語法點由 A~Z 編排,方便查找搜尋
    語法點範圍涵蓋基礎(Basic)到高階(Advanced)程度
    全書中文例句或漢字均附有漢語拼音及英文翻譯
    每個語法點詳列:功能、結構、用法,完整介紹該語法
    每個語法點提供多個典型例句,幫助理解使用的情境
    能使學習者快速理解語法形式及結構,了解怎麼用、什麼時候用,以及用在什麼地方
    華語教師、中文學習者必備的工具書
    可搭配任何中文學習教材參考使用

    Features:
    345 entries of modern Chinese grammar, arranged alphabetically by Hanyu Pinyin.
    Designed specifically for Chinese language learners of all levels.
    Grammatical entries include three subsections: Function, Structure and Usage.
    (1) The Function section answers the questions ‘What is the purpose of this grammar item?’ and ‘How do native speakers use it?’
    (2) The Structure section explains grammar points, including descriptions of negative and interrogative structures, so that learners can become skilled at making sentences using negative structures and asking questions.
    (3) A Usage section is provided when applicable to compare and contrast structures found in the Chinese and English languages.
    This reference guide can give learners a clear understanding of grammar points and help them master Chinese.
    Excellent companion to any Chinese learning textbook.
     
  • 鄧守信
    Shou-hsin Teng, PhD
    Professor of Chinese Linguistics
    University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass, USA (retired)
    National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan (retired)
    Maa Fa Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand
    Dept. of Chinese as a Second Language, Chungyuan Christian University, Chungli, Taiwan (current)

    策劃者簡介
    國立臺灣師範大學國語教學中心
    國立臺灣師範大學國語教學中心成立於 1956 年,隸屬於國立臺灣師範大學,是臺灣歷史最悠久、規模最完備、教學最有成效的華語文教學機構。學員來自全世界各地,許多漢學界知名學者及政經界名人都曾在此就讀,在國際間享譽盛名。

    The Mandarin Training Center (MTC) at NTNU
    The Mandarin Training Center (MTC) is founded in 1956. The MTC, a subsidiary of National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU), is the largest and oldest institution dedicated to teaching Chinese as a second language in Taiwan. The center has well-equipped facilities and is internationally renowned for its high teaching quality. MTC’s students come from all over the world, and many renowned sinology scholars and important figures in the politics and financial are its alumni.
  • A
    A-not-A Questions
    Answering Questions in Chinese
    按照, ànzhào, (Prep), in accordance with

    B
    吧, ba, (Ptc), Making Suggestions
    把, bǎ, (Ptc), To Dispose of Something (1)
    把, bǎ, (Ptc), Moving an Object to a Location (2)
    把, bǎ, (Ptc), with V1V2V3 (3)
    把, bǎ, (Ptc), V (一) V, Disposal with Verb Reduplication (4)
    把, bǎ, (Ptc), with Resultative Complements (5)
    把, bǎ, (Ptc), Unintentional Event (6)
    把 A 當做 B, (bǎ A dàngzuò B), to treat or take A as B (7)
    白, bái, (Adv), in vain, all for nothing
    幫, bāng, (Prep), on behalf of
    被, bèi, (Ptc), A Passive Marker (See 受 shòu entry also)
    比, bǐ, (Prep), Comparison (1)
    比, bǐ, (Prep), Intensifying a State with 一 M 比 一 M, more and more X, more X than the last (2)
    比較, bǐjiào, (Adv), Implicit Comparison (3)
    比起來, bǐqǐlái, Comparison (4)
    畢竟, bìjìng, (Adv), after all, to Urge Concession
    別的, biéde, other
    別再⋯了,bié zài…le, stop doing it
    並, bìng, (Adv), 並 + Negation, Contrary to Expectation
    不, bù, vs. 沒, méi, Negation (1)
    不, bù, Negative Potential Complement (2)
    -部-bù, or -邊-biān, Locative Markers
    不但 A,還 B, (búdàn (Conj) A, hái (Adv) B), not only A, but also B
    不但 A,而且 B, (búdàn (Conj) A, érqiě (Conj) B), not only A but also B
    不到, búdào, less than
    不得不, bùdébù, have no choice but to…
    不管 A 都 B, (bùguǎn (Conj) A dōu (Adv) B), regardless of whether or not
    不見得, bújiàndé, (Adv), not necessarily
    不禁, bùjīn, (Adv), uncontrollably, cannot help but…
    不如, bùrú, (Vst), not as good as
    不是, búshì, Negation
    不是 A 就是 B, (bú shì A jiù shì B), if it's not A, then it’s B
    不是 A,而是 B, (bú shì A, ér shì B), not A ; rather B
    不說, bùshuō , in S1 不說,S2 也yě, not merely, but also (complaining)
    不太, bútài, not very
    不停, bù tíng, as in Verb + 個不停, keep on
    不再⋯了, (bú zài…le), not…any more
    不只, bùzhǐ, (Adv), not merely, exceeding
    不至於, bùzhìyú, (Adv), but the situation would not be so bad as to…

    C
    才, cái, (Adv), merely, only (1)
    才, cái, (Adv), longer/later than expected (2)
    才, cái, (Adv), then and only then (3)
    才, cái, (Adv), to outrightly deny (4)
    才 A 就 B, (cái A jiù B), only just A, and B already (5)
    曾經, céngjīng, (Adv), experience in the past, V’ed before
    差不多, chàbùduō, (Vs, Adv), In Various Functions
    差一點(就), chàyīdiǎn (jiù), (Adv), almost
    趁, chèn, (Prep), seize the moment
    成, chéng, (Ptc), as Verb Complement, to become, to turn into (1)
    成, chéng, (Ptc), As a verb complement, successful(ly) (2)
    成語, chéngyǔ, 四字格, Four-Character Phrases
    出, chū, (Ptc), Verb Particle, to have emerged
    出來, chūlái, as Verb Complement, to figure out
    除了 A,還 B, (chúle (Prep) A , hái (Adv) B), in addition to
    Complement of Intensification in Comparison Structures (1)
    Complements, 極了jíle, 得不得了de bùdéliǎo, 得很de hěn, terribly, extremely (2)
    從 A 到 B, (cóng (Prep) A dào (Prep) B), from A to B
    從 A 往 B, (cóng (Prep) A wǎng (Prep) B), go A from B
    從⋯起, (cóng (Prep)…qǐ (Ptc)), starting from…
    從來, cónglái, (Adv), 從來 + Negation, never

    D
    當⋯的時候, (dāng…de shíhòu), when, while, at the time of
    到, dào, (Prep), Destination Marker (1)
    到, dào, (Prep), Destination Marker for Movement Verbs (2)
    到, dào, (Prep), Post-verbal Preposition, up to, till (3)
    到, dào, (Ptc), as Verb Complement, to be successful in… (4)
    到底, dàodǐ, (Adv), after all? how on earth…?
    倒是, dàoshì, (Adv), on the other hand
    得, de, (Ptc), Complement Marker (1)
    得, de, (Ptc), Complement Marker, used in comparing the results of actions (2)
    得, de, (Ptc), Complement Marker, so…that… (3)
    得, de, (Ptc), Positive Potential Complement Marker (4) (See 不(2))
    的, de, (Ptc), Possessive Marker (1)
    的, de, (Ptc), Modifier Marker (2)
    的, de, (Ptc), with the Head Noun Omitted (3)
    的, de, (Ptc), to Mark Assurance, co-occuring often with會huì (Vaux) (4)
    的話, de huà, if, supposing
    的時候, de shíhòu, when, at the time of
    等, děng, (Ptc), enumeration particle, etc…
    等 A 就 B,(děng A jiù B), when A comes, then B
    的確, díquè, (Adv), indeed
    掉, diào, (Ptc), Verb Particle, separated from
    Directional Constructions V1V2 and V1V2V3
    Disposal Construction (See 把bǎ,1-7)
    懂, dǒng, (Vs, Vp), Complement Indicating Cognitive Ability as a Result
    動, dòng, (Vp), used as a verb complement, capable of causing movement
    動不動就, dòngbùdòng jiù, whenever one pleases to do something impetuously
    都, dōu, (Adv), totality, all (1)
    都, dōu, (Adv), expressing displeasure, annoyance or surprise (2)
    對, duì , (Prep), towards
    對 A 有B, (duì (Prep) A yǒu (Vs) B), to be B in A
    對⋯來說, (duì (Prep)…lái shuō), as far as...is concerned, for
    對⋯講究, (duì (Prep) …jiǎngjiù (Vst)), to be discerning, discriminating, particular about
    對於, duìyú, (Prep, Ptc), towards, regarding (1)
    對於⋯而言, (duìyú (Prep)…ér yán), as far as… is concerned (2)
    多, duō, (Vs), more than, over, and some (1)
    多, duō, (Adv), as in 多+Verb, more… than planned (2)
    多, duō, (Adv), intensifying, how…! (3)
    多少, duōshǎo, (Adv), likely, at least

    E
    而且, érqiě, (Conj), furthermore
    Existential Sentence with Posture Verbs (1)
    Existential Sentence with有yǒu (2)

    F
    反而, fǎn'ér, (Adv), on the contrary
    反正, fǎnzhèng, (Adv), at any rate, anyway
    方面, fāngmiàn, (N), as in 在⋯方面, with respect to; regarding
    非⋯不可, (fēi…bùkě), it is imperative that
    否則, fǒuzé, (Conj), otherwise
    Four-Character Phrases (See 成語chéngyǔ,)

    G
    V 個夠, V ge gòu, to have a full dosage of an activity
    各 V 各的, (gè V gè de), each doing her/his own…
    給, gěi, (Prep), Various Meanings (1)
    給, gěi, (Prep), Indirect Object Marker (2)
    給⋯帶來, (gěi (Prep)…dàilái), to bring…to (3)
    跟, gēn, (Prep), Companionship (1)
    跟, gēn, (Prep), Various Meanings of the Preposition (2)
    跟⋯一樣, (gēn (Prep)…yíyàng), Comparison
    跟 B 有關的 A, (gēn (Prep) B yǒuguān de A), A that relates to B, A that concern B
    根本, gēnběn, (Adv), not…at all, absolutely not
    更, gèng, (Adv), Intensification in Comparison, even more so
    更別說 B 了, (gèng bié shuō B le), let alone, never mind
    慣, guàn, (Ptc), indicating ‘getting used to a routine’
    光 A 就 B, (guāng (Adv) A jiù (Adv) B), just A alone…
    關於, guānyú, (Vs, Ptc), about, regarding
    過, guò, (Ptc), Experience Aspect (1)
    過, guò, (Ptc), Phase Aspect Marker, Completion of Action (2)

    H
    還, hái, (Adv), still (unchanged, incomplete) (1)
    還, hái, (Adv), to my surprise (2)
    還是 A 吧, (háishì (Adv) A ba (Ptc)), it will be better if A, it would be best if A
    好, hǎo, as in 好+Verb, nice to, easy to (1)
    好, hǎo, (Ptc), as Verb Complement, all set and ready (2)
    好不容易, hǎobù róngyì , (idiom), only after a tremendous amount of...
    何必, hébì, (Adv), why must
    何況, hékuàng, (Adv), let alone, no need to mention
    很, hěn, (Adv), Intensification Marker
    恨不得, hènbùdé, one really wishes one could…
    後來, hòulái, (Adv), next in sequence
    會, huì, (Vaux), aquired skills, can, able to (1)
    會, huì, (Vaux), likelihood (2)
    會, huì, (Vaux), as Verb Complement (3)

    J
    既 A 又 B, (jì (Adv) A yòu (Adv) B), not only A, but also B
    既然 A 就 B, (jìrán (Conj) A jiù (Adv) B), Concession, since A then B
    見, jiàn, (Ptc), as Verb Complement, perceived
    漸漸, jiànjiàn, (Adv), gradually, slowly
    簡直, jiǎnzhí, (Adv), to put it simply and plainly, it seems as if
    叫, jiào, (V), Imperative Verb
    結果, jiéguǒ, (Adv), consequently, (Conj), in the end
    幾乎, jīhū, (Adv), almost
    經過, jīngguò, (Prep), after
    竟然, jìngrán, (Adv), to the speaker’s great surprise, unbelievably
    就, jiù, (Adv), sooner than expected (1)
    就, jiù, (Adv), in V了A 就 B ,(V le A jiù B), do B right after doing A (2)
    就, jiù, (Adv), on the contrary (3)
    就算 S1,也 S2, (jiùsuàn S1, yě S2), even if S1, would S2, no matter how
    就要⋯了, (jiù yào… le), will soon
    究竟, jiùjìng, (Adv), I wonder
    居然, jūrán, (Adv), to one’s surprise

    K
    看, kàn, (V), as in V V 看, to try and see, to try out (1)
    看, kàn, (V), depend on (2)
    靠, kào, (V / Prep), to rely on, by means of
    可, kě, (Adv), but on the other hand, stating a mild warning
    可見, kějiàn, (Conj), it can thus be concluded that…
    可以, kěyǐ, (Vaux), Permission (1)
    可以, kěyǐ, (Vaux), Possibility (2)
    恐怕, kǒngpà, (Adv), probably, I’m afraid that
    快一點, kuài yìdiǎn, hurry up

    L
    來, lái, (V), as in 來 + VP, to come to do something (1)
    來, lái, as a verb complement, to get along well, to be able to relate to each other well (2)
    了1, le, (Ptc), Completed Action (1)
    了1 , le, (Ptc), Followed by Time-Duration (2)
    了2, le, (Ptc), Change in Situation (3)
    了2 , (Ptc), in 快⋯了, kuài…le, about to (4)
    了1⋯了2, (le (Ptc)… le (Ptc)), Completion-to-date (5)
    離, lí, (Prep), distance from
    離合詞, líhécí, Separable Verbs
    連 A 都 B, (lián (Prep) A dōu (Adv) B), even
    了, liǎo, (Ptc), as Verb Complement, capability
    另外的, lìngwài de, another (See 別的biéde)
    亂, luàn, (Adv), as in 亂+Verb, to do somethng in an irresponsible manner risking undersirable consequences

    M
    嗎, ma, (Ptc), Asking Questions (1)
    嗎, ma, (Ptc), Confrontational (2)
    嘛, ma, (Ptc), isn’t it obvious that
    滿, mǎn, (Vs), as Verb Complement, crowded with (1)
    滿, mǎn, (Vpt), to reach a ceiling (2)
    Measures, (nominal), Units for Counting Nouns in Chinese (1)
    Measures, (verbal), 下 xià, 趟 tàng, 遍biàn, and 次cì (2)
    Measure 一M一M as Manner, one at a time
    沒有, méi yǒu, as used in Inferior Comparison
    每, měi, (Det), each and every (1)
    每, měi, (Det), as in 每+Time Expression, Frequency (2)
    免得, miǎnde, (Adv), lest, so as to avoid
    明明, míngmíng, (Adv), it should be obvious to everyone that…
    Multiple Verb Phrases

    N
    拿⋯來說, (ná (Prep)…lái shuō), take…as an example
    哪裡, nǎlǐ, (Adv), rhetorical question
    難, nán, as in 難 + Verb, Special Meanings (See 好 (1))
    難道, nándào, (Adv), how could it possibly be true
    難得, nándé, (Adv), rarely
    難怪, nánguài, (Adv), no wonder
    難免, nánmiǎn, (Adv), inevitably, it is only natural that
    難以, nányǐ, (Vaux), to find it difficult to…
    呢, ne, (Ptc), Contrastive tag Questions
    能1, néng, (Vaux), Capability (1)
    能2, néng, (Vaux), Permission (2)
    能3, néng, (Vaux), Possibility (3)
    寧可 A 也要 B, (níngkě (Adv) A, yě (Adv) yào (Vaux) B), would rather A , in order to B
    弄, nòng, (V), General Pro-Verb (1)
    弄, nòng, (V), General Causative Verb (2)

    O
    Omission of Nouns at 2nd Mention

    P
    偏偏, piānpiān, (Adv), contrary to expectation, deliberately, annoyingly
    Pronouns Interrogative to Refer to All-inclusion or All-exclusion (1)
    Pronouns Interrogative in Non-committal Stance (2)

    Q
    起, qǐ, (Ptc), as Verb Complement, to be able to afford (1)
    起, qǐ, (Ptc), as Verb Particle, to touch upon (2)
    起來, qǐlái, as Verb Complement, assessment of situations (1)
    起來, qǐlái, as Verb Complement in 想起來xiǎngqǐlái, to have remembered (2)
    起來, qǐlái, as Verb Complement, with inchoative meaning (3)
    其他的, qítā de, the others (See 別的biéde)
    去, qù, (Vi), as in 去+VP, to go do something
    卻, què, (Adv), however

    R
    讓, ràng, (V), to let someone do something
    然後, ránhòu, (Adv), next in sequence (See 後來hòulái)
    Reduplication of Verbs, to indicate softened action (1).
    Reduplication of State Verbs for Intensification (2)
    Reduplication of Disyllabic State Verbs (3)
    Reduplication of Disyllabic Verbs for Tentative Action (4)
    Reduplication of Verbs in V了V (5)
    Relatve Clause A 的 B, Clause as Modifier of Noun
    仍然, réngrán, (Adv), still the same, same as before
    Repetition of Verbs, as in V 來 V 去, (V lái V qù) , repetitively, back and forth

    S
    Separable Verbs (See 離合詞líhécí,)
    似乎, sìhū, (Adv), it seems that, it gives somebody the impression that
    所, suǒ, (Ptc), Verb Marker
    上, shàng, (V), Various Meanings of the Verb (1)
    上, shàng, (Ptc), as Verb Complement, coming into contact (2)
    上, shàng, (Ptc), as in 在 NP 上, regarding NP (3)
    少, shǎo, (Adv), as in 少+Verb, less… than planned (See 多(2))
    誰知道, sheí zhīdào, who would have thought that…?
    什麼都⋯,就是⋯, (shénme dōu…, jiùshì…), everything but…
    甚至, shènzhì, (Adv), even
    是, shì, (Ptc), it is indeed true that
    是⋯的, shì…de, to Focus, it was A that B
    是不是, shìbúshì, is it the case that…?
    使得, shǐde, (Vst), expressing causation, so as to make
    受, shòu, (Vst), a Passive Marker (see also 被bèi entry)
    受到⋯影響, (shòudào…yǐngxiǎng), to be influenced by, affected by
    說, shuō, (V), speak, vs. 談, tán, (V), talk
    說到, shuōdào, talking of
    說 A 就 A, (shuō A jiù A), happening instantly without prior warning
    死了, sǐle, A Post-Verbal Intensifier, terribly
    四字格, sìzìgé, Four-Character Phrases (See 成語chéngyǔ)
    算了, suànle, forget it, drop it
    算是, suànshì, (V), can be considered…
    隨著S1,S2 也, (suízhe (Prep) S1, S2 yě (Adv)), as a consequence of

    T
    太⋯了, tài (Adv)…le, overly, excessively
    談, tán, (V), talk, vs. 說, shuō, (V), speak (See 說shuō)
    談到, tándào, talking of (See 說到shuōdào)
    Time and Place of Events (1)
    Time-When vs. Time-Duration (2)
    Time-Duration ‘for a period of time’ (3)
    Topic in Sentence (1)
    Topic as Contrastive (2)
    透過, tòuguò, (Prep), by means of

    W
    完, wán, (Ptc), as Verb Complement, completion of action
    萬一, wànyī, (Adv), supposing, in the event of something negative
    往往, wǎngwǎng, (Adv), usually, tend to
    為, wèi, (Prep), Beneficiary Marker, beneficiary of an action
    為了, wèile, (Prep), in order to
    無論 A 都 B, (wúlùn (Conj) A dōu (Adv) B), regardless of what…
    無所謂, wúsuǒwèi, (Vs), does not matter

    X
    下, xià, (Ptc), as Verb Complement, enough space to accommodate
    下來, xiàlái, a summary of the various meanings of the verb complement下來
    下去, xiàqù, as Verb Complement, to keep on doing something
    先 A 再 B, (xiān (Adv) A zài (Adv) B), first A, and then B
    向, xiàng, (Prep), to, toward
    A 像 B 一樣, (A xiàng B yíyàng), A is just like B
    像…的+ Noun, (xiàng…de + Noun), such (nouns) as
    幸虧, xìngkuī, (Adv), fortunately

    Y
    要是 A 就 B, (yàoshì A jiù B), Condition and Consequence
    以, yǐ, (Prep), classical Chinese, indicating instrument
    以後, yǐhòu, (N), in the future, after (Also see 後來hòulái)
    以及, yǐjí, (Conj), as well as
    以內, yǐnèi, within
    一A 就 B, (yì A jiù B), as soon as
    一般來說, yìbān láishuō, generally speaking
    一邊 A 一邊 B, (yìbiān A yìbiān B), connecting two simultaneous events, doing A and B at the same time
    一點, yìdiǎn, (N), a bit, a little
    一點也不 V, (yìdiǎn yě bù V), emphatic negation
    一方面 A,一方面 B, (yì fāngmiàn A, yì fāngmiàn B), doing A on the one hand, B on the other
    一口氣, yìkǒuqì, in one breath, without interruption
    一來 A,二來 B, (yìlái A, èrlái B), on the one hand A, and on the other B; firstly A, secondly B
    一連, yìlián, (Adv), without interruption, in rapid succession
    一下 A,一下 B, (yíxià A, yíxià B), referring to alternating events
    一向, yíxiàng, (Adv), all along, has always…
    以為, yǐwéi, (Vst), to have wrongly thought that …
    因為 A,所以 B, (yīnwèi (Conj) A, suǒyǐ (Conj) B), to express cause and effect
    因為 A 才 B, (yīnwèi (Conj) A cái (Adv) B), only because A, B…; B is true, only since A is like this
    因為 NP,S…, (yīnwèi (Prep) NP, S…), because of NP, S…
    因為 A 而 B, (yīnwèi (Conj) A ér (Adv) B), therefore, consequently
    由, yóu, (Prep), Introducing an Agent, an Actor
    尤其是, yóuqí shì, especially
    有, yǒu, (Vst), to possess, to have, to own (1)
    有, yǒu, (Vs), in Existential Sentence, there’s… (2) (See Existential Sentence with 有)
    有, yǒu, (Vs), to mark the existence of a subject, there’s someone, there’s something… (3)
    有時候 A, 有時候 B, (yǒu shíhòu A, yǒu shíhòu B), sometimes A, and sometimes B
    有一點, yǒu yìdiǎn, slightly
    有助於, yǒu zhù yú, be conducive to
    又A又B, (yòu (Adv) A yòu (Adv) B), both A and B
    與其 A,不如 B, (yǔqí (Conj) A, bùrú (Conj) B), would rather B than A
    於是, yúshì, (Conj), thus, consequently, thereupon
    越 A 越 B, (yuè (Adv) A yuè (Adv) B), the more A, the more B

    Z
    在, zài, (Prep), Locative Marker, at, located at, situated at (1)
    在, zài, (Prep), Marking the Location of an Activity (2)
    在, zài, (Vs), Progressive, On-going Actions, at Ving, is in the middle of V+ing (3)
    在, zài, as Verb Complement, Resultant Location (4)
    在⋯方面, (zài...fāngmiàn), with respect to; regarding (See 方面fāngmiàn)
    在⋯下, (zài…xià), under the…, due to the…
    再 A 也 B, (zài A yě B), no matter how A, still B
    再不 A 就 B 了, (zài bù A jiù B le),urgent conditional, if A doesn’t happen now, B is sure to follow
    再加上, zài jiāshàng, furthermore
    再說, zàishuō, (Conj), besides, moreover
    早就⋯了, (zǎo jiù…le), long since…
    怎麼, zěnme, (Adv), asking how, asking about a manner of doing things, how, in what way
    怎麼這麼, zěnme zhème, why so…?
    占, zhàn, (Vst), to constitute
    照, zhào, (Adv), deliberately, persist in
    這麼說, zhème shuō, that being the case, in that case
    這下子, zhèxiàzi, that being the case, as a consequence
    這樣一來, zhèyàng yìlái, that being the case, that way
    著, zhe, (Ptc), ongoing, continuative action, in the state of V+ing (1)
    著, zhe, (Ptc), used in Manner of an Action (2)
    著, zhe, (Ptc), repeated, as in V 著 V 著,就⋯了, (V zhe V zhe, jiù…le), while doing A, B happens (3)
    V 著玩, V zhe wán, do something just for fun
    只不過⋯(而已), (zhǐ bùguò…(éryǐ)), merely…; nothing more than…
    只好, zhǐhǎo, (Adv), concession, could only, have no choice but to
    只要 A,就 B, (zhǐyào (Conj) A, jiù (Adv) B), B is true, as long as A is true.
    只有 A,才 B, (zhǐyǒu A, cái B), cannot B, unless A
    至於, zhìyú, (Ptc), introducing a new topic, as to, as far as… is concerned
    中, zhōng, a summary of the various meanings
    自, zì, (Prep), from (formal)
    自從⋯以後, (zìcóng (Prep)…yǐhòu (N)), ever since...
    總是, zǒngshì, (Adv), always, in all cases, without exception
    總算, zǒngsuàn, (Adv), finally
    走, zǒu, (Ptc), as a Verb Particle, away

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